Thyroid Gland and Its Diseases

What are thyroid glands?

Thyroid glands are the glands that are at the front of the neck, just under the cartilage called the Adams apple. Its frontal view resembles a butterfly. The hormones produced in the thyroid glands generally control the bodies’ energy and play an important role in the working of the circulation, digestive and immune systems.

The triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) hormones related to the storage and usage of the bodies’ energy are also produced by these glands. The thyroid glands have more veins than most of the other tissues in the body and the hormones that it produces regulates the metabolism.

Certain diseases may cause an excess amount of these hormones to be produced (hyperthyroidism) or not enough to be produced (hypothyroidism).

In the case where an excess amount is produced, palpitations caused by the speeding up of the heart beat, weight loss although an increase in appetite and food consumption, anger, shaky hands, sweating, hair loss symptoms may be faced. In the case of not enough hormones being produced, heaviness, exhaustion, water retention in the body, weight gain, dry skin, voice loss, lack of intestinal activity, inconsistent periods are symptoms that may be faced.

Thyroid gland diseases are fairly common. Due to thyroid gland infections increasing in recent years, thyroid function deficiency and hyperthyroidism has started to be more closely observed in middle aged people and in women. An important factor that separates thyroid gland diseases from other diseases is that it requires a team effort in the treatment. This team must consist of hormonal diseases specialist (endocrinologist), radiology specialist, nuclear medicine specialist, pathology specialist and a surgical branch specialist that will conduct the operation.

Thyroid disease symptoms:

  • Palpitations
  • Shaky hands
  • Sudden weight gain
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Miscarriage
  • Stillbirth
  • Infertility
  • Eyes bursting forth (exophthalmoses)
  • Inability to lose weight by dieting
  • Sudden anger explosions
  • Extreme anger
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhoea
  • Nausea
  • Forgetfulness
  • Inconsistent periods
  • Shoulder, neck, back, waist, arm, leg pain
  • Adele cramps
  • Tiredness
  • Laziness
  • Sexual reluctance
  • Lack of sexual performance
  • Depression
  • Panic attack
  • Constant defecation
  • Voice loss, coarse voice
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Discomfort in the throat
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen throat
  • Difficulty in breathing when asleep (sleep apnoea)
  • Insomnia
  • Snoring
  • Heat flushed
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Sweating at night
  • Extreme sweating
  • Brittle nails
  • Peeling nails
  • Split nails
  • Spotty nails
  • Dry skin
  • Heart rhythm problems
  • Hair loss in women
  • Dandruff
  • Dull hair