The pain in the lower abdomen or stomach region which occurs during or just before menstruation is called dysmenorrhoea (menstrual cramp).
This periodical pain can be accompanied by sweating, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, dizziness, fainting, emotional abnormalities and palpitations. This situation which effects the female Daily activities can result in loss of work efficiency and irregularity in those who are working or studying
Dysmenorrhoea occurs in two forms;
Primary dysmenorrhoea: It usually occurs in the first 1-2 years after the onset of the menstrual period and lasts until the forties. It is one of the most common gynaecological complaints and 50% of cases after puberty have primary dysmenorrhoea. The cause of the pain is the prostaglandin hormone secreted in the womb. Prostaglandin causes pain and contractions in the womb. The pain progresses with intermittent cramps in the lower part of the abdomen. It can also affect the back, waist, groin and vulva. The pain that starts 1-2 days before the onset of menstrual bleeding, it becomes worse on the first day of menstruation and decreases on the second day. After birth, the pain is expected to reduce.
Secondary dysmenorrhoea: It is the painful menstruation as a result of an underlying pathological condition. Examples of the pathological situation can include; Congenitally closed hymen, some vaginal and uterine abnormalities or subsequent PID, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, polyps, intrauterine adhesions and infections.