Obesity is the most important health problem of developed and developing countries nowadays and it is a complicated condition that develops with the excessive increase of fat tissue in the body and as a result causes a lot of health problems and increases the risk of catching diseases. Individuals, whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is higher than 30 are accepted as “obese” by the World Health Organization.
Although, various calculation methods are used to determine if an individual is medically obese or not, the most common method for calculating the fat ratio of the body is Body Mass Index. In order to calculate the body mass index, the weight of the individual (kilograms) must be divided in to the square of the individual’s height (centimetres). The result of this calculation gives us information about the medical condition of one’s weight.
If not treated, obesity can cause cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea, paralysis, joint and bone diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic diseases that can easily effect the patients life negatively.
Causes of Obesity
The balance between calorie intake and spent energy determines one’s weight. If an individual is taking more calories than he/she is burning, this causes weight gain and if he/she is taking less calories than he/she is burning, this will cause weight loss. Therefore, the major cause of obesity is excessive calorie intake and inactivity. There are different factors that cause obesity too.
Malnutrition: The risk being obese for an individual, who eats fatty, sweet and salted food is very high compared to a person, who eats healthy. Studies show that there is a direct link with consuming fast food and obesity.
Genetic Factors: The individuals, who has obesity in their family, has a higher risk of catching the disease. Genetic features determine the oscillation amounts and efficiency of the hormones, which has a role in the fat storing mechanism; therefore, they can play a decisive role in the development of obesity. For example, in cases, which the leptin hormone that gives the feeling of fullness is not oscillated enough, the individual can gain weight easily.
Overnutirition: Especially, if an individual consumes a lot of fatty food, he/she has a higher risk for obesity. Foods that has high fat and sugar ratio have a lot of calories and they cause weight gain.
Consuming A Lot Of Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates increase the sugar ratio in the blood and insulin oscillation. The formation of fat cells increase, when the insulin oscillation increases.
Inactivity: Inactive individuals burn less calories. It is impossible to prevent weight gain,, if you take more calories than you burn.
Medications: Some chemical medications can cause the patient to gain weight. Some anti-depression, diabetes, hormone, blood pressure medications can increase appetite and if the patient does not take precautions, they can cause weight gain.
Psychological Factors: Some individuals tend to feed themselves according to their emotions. Boredom, sadness, stress or anger may cause them to consume a lot of calories and they gain weight as a result.
Diseases: Insulin resistance, thyroid diseases, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothalamus disorders, hypophysis diseases and sleep apnea can cause obesity.